The basic equipment of a Roman soldier was:
- Cassis - helmet
- Lorica Segmentata - armour
- Focale and cingulum - scarf and tunic worn under armour
- Gladius - sword, 18-24 in. long
- Pilum (plural pila) - medium-length throwing spear
- Scutum - shield
- Red Battle Cloak
- Caligae or military boots
Soldiers moved from one place to another by marching. Life for soldiers on the move was very hard. At the end of a day's march they had to build a camp.
Each soldier carried a his kit (equipment on a pole. He had spare clothes, food rations, a cooking pot, a short spade, a handmill for grinding corn and two wooden stakes to help build a protective fence (palisade).
On the left side of the soldier's body was his trusty shield (scutum). It was a semi-circular shield, designed so that any missiles thrown at the soldier would be deflected to one side. This would mean less effort by the soldier would be needed to defend himself.
See more photos of the different types of shields
Roman boots were made of several thicknesses of leather, studded with conical hobnails for marching over rough ground and using on the enemy when he had fallen.
The metal studs on the soles helped prevent the leather wearing down quickly.
Visit the weapons page for more equipment
Label the Roman Soldier
Dress a Roman soldier (external website)