The Mountain Environment

by Mandy Barrow

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Volcano Vocabulary

volcanovolcano Active volcano

A volcano that is erupting or has erupted within historical time and is considered likely to do so in the future.

volcano Ash

Fine particles of rock dust blown from an explosion vent.

volcano Ashfall

Volcanic ash that has fallen through the air from an eruption cloud.

volcano Vent

A vent is an opening at the Earth's surface of a volcanic conduit.

volcano Composite Volcano

A steep volcanic cone built by both lava flows and pyroclastic eruptions.

volcano Compound Volcano

A volcano that consists of a complex of two or more vents, or a volcano that has an associated volcanic dome, either in its crater or on its flanks. Examples are Vesuvius and Mont Pelee.

volcano Conduit

A passage (pipe) followed by magma in a volcano.

volcano Crater

A steep-sided, usually circular depression formed by either explosion or collapse at a volcanic vent.

volcanoDormant volcano

A volcano which is presently inactive but which may erupt again.

volcano Eruption

The process by which solid, liquid, and gaseous materials are ejected into the earth's atmosphere and onto the earth's surface by volcanic activity.

volcano Fault

A crack or fracture in the earth's surface.

volcano Fissures

Elongated fractures or cracks on the slopes of a volcano.

volcano Geysers

Springs that throw boiling water high in the air. They are caused by volcanic heat warming trapped ground water.

volcano Hot Spot

A volcanic center, 60 to 120 miles across and persistent for at least a few tens of million of years, that is thought to be the surface expression of a persistent rising plume of hot mantle material.

volcano Lava

Magma which has reached the surface through a volcanic eruption. Streams of liquid rock that flow from a crater or fissure.

volcano Lava Flow

An outpouring of lava onto the land surface from a vent or fissure.

volcano Magma

Molten rock beneath the surface of the earth.

Magma chamber (Magna reservoir)

The subterranean cavity containing the gas-rich liquid magma which feeds a volcano.

volcano Mantle

The zone of the earth below the crust and above the core.

volcano Ring of Fire

The regions of mountain-building earthquakes and volcanoes which surround the Pacific Ocean.

volcano Stratovolcano

A volcano composed of both lava flows and pyroclastic material.

volcano Vent

The opening at the earth's surface through which volcanic materials issue forth.

volcano Volcanic eruption

When hot rocks and lava burst from a volcano.

volcano Volcano

A vent in the surface of the Earth through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt; also, the form or structure, usually conical, that is produced by the ejected material.

volcano Vulcan

Roman god of fire and the forge, after whom volcanoes are named.

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